Code Simplicity

Privacy, Simplified

So, there’s a lot of talk on the Internet about privacy. Some people say that privacy is only desired by those who have something to hide. Some people insist that privacy is a human right that should never be violated without consent.

There’s only one problem with this whole debate: what is privacy, and why would anybody want it? This is rarely defined–most people just seem to assume that “everybody knows” that privacy is, so why would it have to be explained?

Well, I’m not a big fan of “everybody knows.” And in fact, it turns out that privacy actually means two different things, which many people use interchangeably without specifying what they’re actually talking about. So to help clear up some of the debate online, and to hopefully shed some light on how it can all be resolved, here are some clear definitions and discussions of what privacy is, and why people would want it.

Privacy of Space

The first type of privacy is “privacy of space”. Continue reading


Why Programmers Suck

A long time ago, I wrote an essay called “Why Computers Suck” (it was given the title “Computers” and “What’s Wrong With Computers” in two later revisions, and the original title never saw the light of day). The article was fairly long, but it basically came down to the idea that computers suck because programmers create crazy complicated stuff that nobody else can understand, and complexity builds on complexity until every aspect of a program becomes unmanageable.

What I didn’t know at the time was why programmers did this. It was obvious that they did do it, but why would the software development industry produce so many crazy, complex masses of unreadable code? Why did it keep happening, even when developers should have learned their lesson after their first bad experience? What was it that made programmers not just make bad code, but keep on making bad code?

Well, this was a mystery, but I didn’t worry too much about it at first. Just the revelation that “bad programs are caused entirely by bad programmers”, as simple and obvious as it may seem, was enough to fuel an entire investigation and study into the field of programming, one which had some pretty good results (that’s mostly what I’ve written about on this blog, and it’s also the subject of a book that’s in development). The problem had been defined (bad programmers who create complexity), it seemingly had a solution (describe laws of software design that would prevent this), and that was enough for me.

But it still baffled me that the world’s universities, technical schools, and training programs could turn out such terrible programmers, even with all of the decades of advancement in software development techniques. Sure, a lot of the principles of software design hadn’t been codified, but a lot of good advice was floating around, a lot of it very common. Even if people hadn’t gone to school, didn’t they read any of this advice?

Well, the truth was beyond my imagination, and it took almost five years of working on the Bugzilla Project with a vast number of separate contributors until one day I suddenly realized an appalling fact:

The vast majority (90% or more) of programmers have absolutely no idea what they are doing.

Continue reading


The Singular Secret of the Rockstar Programmer

Before all the laws of software, before the purpose of software, before the science of software design itself, there is a singular fact that determines the success or failure of a software developer. This fact makes the difference between the senior engineer who can seem to pick up new languages in a day and the junior developer who struggles for ten years just to get a paycheck, programming other people’s designs and never improving enough to get a promotion. It differentiates the poor programmers from the good ones, the good programmers from the great ones, and the great ones from the “rockstar” programmers who have founded whole multi-billion dollar empires on their skill.

It’s not anything complicated, and it’s not something that’s hard to know. It’s not something that you can only do if you’re born with a special talent or a “magical ability to program well.” There is nothing about the nature of the individual that determines whether or not they will become an excellent programmer or a poor one.

There is only one, singular fact:

The better you understand what you are doing, the better you will do it.

Continue reading


The Engineer Attitude

The attitude that every engineer should have, in every field of engineering, is:

I can solve this problem the right way.

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How We Figured Out What Sucked

So, after my last post, a few people asked, “Okay, but how do you figure out what sucks?”

Continue reading


The Secret of Success: Suck Less

When I started working on Bugzilla in 2004, it was a difficult time for the whole project. There were tremendous problems with the code, we hadn’t gotten a major release out in two years, and a lot of the main developers had left to go do paid work.

But eventually, thanks to a bunch of new members in the Bugzilla community, we released Bugzilla 2.18. Hooray! Bells rang, birds sang, and there was much rejoicing.

However, in the space between Bugzilla 2.16 (which was before my time) and Bugzilla 2.18 (which was the first release that I helped get out), something very strange happened–we developed serious competition. All of the sudden there were a bunch of new bug-tracking systems, some of them open-source and some of them not, that people were actually using.

At first it wasn’t too worrisome. Bugzilla was pretty dominant in its field, and it’s hard to lose that kind of position. But as time went on, there was more and more competition, and some people were predicting doom and gloom for Bugzilla. We were a tiny group of completely unpaid volunteers, and some of these competing products were being made by companies whose marketing and development resources absolutely dwarfed us.

And yet, with every release, our download numbers kept going up. And always significantly–30-50% more than the previous release, every time.

And then we hit Bugzilla 3.0, and our download numbers nearly doubled. And they’ve kept going up with every release from there. Nowadays we get over 10 times the number of downloads per release that we did in 2004.

So how did we pull this off? Well, as far as I can tell:

All you have to do to succeed in software is to consistently suck less with every release.

Continue reading


“Consistency” Does Not Mean “Uniformity”

In a user interface, similar things should look the same. But different things should look different.

Why do over 75% of Facebook’s users think that the new Facebook UI is bad? Because it makes different things look similar to each other. Nobody can tell if they’re updating their status or writing on somebody else’s wall, because even though the text is slightly different in the box depending on what you’re doing, the box itself looks the same. The new Chat UI (introduced a few days ago) makes idle users look basically identical to active users, except for a tiny icon difference. (It’s also important that different things are different enough, not just a little different, because people often won’t notice little differences.)

This is an easy pitfall for developers to fall into because developers love consistency. Everything should be based on a single framework, in the backend of an application. But that doesn’t mean that everything has to be displayed the same in the UI.

This fact–that different things should look different–is actually true with code, too, but people rarely think about it, because developers are actually pretty good about it. For example, accessing a value of an object should look different than calling a method on it, and in most programs, it does. For example, in Bugzilla’s code, accessing a value on an object looks like $object->value whereas calling a method on the object looks like $object->method(). It’s not all that different, but the () at the end is enough difference for the average programmer to notice “Oh, that’s a method call that does something–it’s not just accessing a value in the object.”

All in all, consistency is really important in both the backend and the frontend of an application. But that doesn’t mean that every single thing should look exactly the same–if we took that to extremes, we’d just have a solid white page, and that doesn’t seem all that usable (frontend) or readable (backend), does it?


Features, Simplicity, and the Purpose of Software

One of the best ways to keep an app simple is, of course, to limit how many features you implement. Twitter, for example, has very few features, but is enormously successful. The limited number of features of Twitter make it really easy to keep the application simple, which lets the developers focus a lot on the quality of the system, the polish of each individual feature, etc.

Twitter’s just one of the many proofs that you don’t have to have lots of features to be successful. In fact, many successful apps have fewer features than their less-successful competitors.

Still, you’ve got to have some features. 🙂 After all, it’d be pretty silly to be programming, otherwise. But how do you decide which features you should have? Is it just up to the Chief Architect’s intuition, or how many users demand that you give them “feature X”? Does whoever shouts the loudest in the development meeting get their feature implemented first?

Well, no, there is a way to decide whether or not you should implement a feature, and it comes out of one of our most basic principles: the purpose of software. This principle (that the purpose of software is “to help people”) isn’t just some fancy-sounding gibberish I made up to make myself happy–I wrote it because it’s something that can actually be really useful to think about in everyday programming, and this question of “Should we implement this feature?” gives us a great opportunity to show how it can be applied. Continue reading


(I)SAR Clarified

In my previous post, I said that there are three major parts to any computer program: Structure, Action, and Results. Also, a program has Input, which could be considered a fourth part of the program, although usually it’s not the programmer who’s creating the input, but the user. So we can either abbreviate this as SAR or ISAR, depending on whether or not we want to include “Input.”

Now, some people misunderstood me and said, “Oh, SAR is just another name for MVC.” No, I used MVC as an example of SAR, but SAR is a much, much broader concept than MVC–they are not comparable theories. MVC is a pattern for designing software, whereas SAR (or ISAR) is a statement of the three (or four) components that are present in all software.

The fascinating thing about SAR is that it applies not only to a whole program, but also to any piece of that program. A whole program has a Structure, just as a function or single line of code has a Structure. Same for Action and Results.

Here’s a little more about each of the pieces, and some examples to help explain:


Here are some examples of things that would be considered “Structure” for the whole program: Continue reading


Structure, Action, and Results

There’s a very popular model for designing software that we’ve all heard of if we’re web developers, and probably most desktop developers have heard of too: our old friend MVC. This works well because it reflects the basic nature of a computer program: a series of actions taken on a structure of data to produce a result. Programs also take input, and so you could possibly argue that input was a fourth part of a program, but usually I just think of a computer program as the first three parts: Structure, Action, and Results.

In the MVC sense, the Model is the Structure, the Controller is what does the Actions, and the View is the Result. I think the analogy (and the words) Structure, Action, and Results are more widely and accurately applicable to the operation of every program in existence, though, moreso than MVC, though MVC is a perfectly good way of looking at it for GUI applications.

Really, Structure, Action, and Results probably describes almost any machine in existence. A machine has some parts that don’t move, a framework–that’s the structure. Some parts move and do something–that motion is the action. And of course the machine produces something (otherwise we wouldn’t care much about it) so that’s the result.

Computer programs are unusual machines in that they can modify their own structure. However, it’s important that some part of the program be stable, that they “not move” in a logical sense. The way that object classes relate to each other, the names of methods and variables–these are all parts of the structure that usually don’t change while you’re running. (Sometimes you make new classes, methods, or variables while you’re running, but they usually follow some pre-set plan, so there’s still a lot of “not moving” involved.)

When I’m writing software, I usually build the Structure first, then I work on the Actions, and then I work on the displaying of the Result. Some people work backwards from the Results, that’s fine too. Probably the only inadvisable thing to do is to start with the Actions, since it’s kind of confusing to be performing Actions without a Structure and with no defined Result.

There’s so much to this concept that I could probably write a whole book just on this one topic, but I think this is a decent introduction, and I’m sure that given this, you can think of lots of other useful applications of it.


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